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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006 Jun;26(6):811-20.

15d-Prostaglandin J2 activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, promotes expression of catalase, and reduces inflammation, behavioral dysfunction, and neuronal loss after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

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  • 1Stroke Program, Department of Neurology, University of Texas - Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of various gene products that are essential in lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as that of the peroxisome-enriched antioxidant enzyme, catalase. Activation of PPARgamma is linked to anti-inflammatory activities and is beneficial for cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) acts as a physiologic agonist for PPARgamma. In this study, we found that injection of 15d-PGJ2 into the locus of striatal hematoma increased PPARgamma-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) binding activity and the expression of catalase messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein in the perihemorrhagic area. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 significantly reduced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and prevented neutrophil infiltration measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) immunoassay, and also reduced cell apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). In addition, 15d-PGJ2 reduced behavioral dysfunction produced by the ICH. Altogether, our findings indicate that injection of 15d-PGJ2 at the onset of ICH is associated with activation of PPARgamma and elevation of catalase expression, suppression of NF-kappaB activity, and restricted neutrophil infiltration. All these events predicted reduced behavioral deficit and neuronal damage.

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