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Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005 Nov;23(4):1105-25.

Modern management of cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

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  • 1Division of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, 21201, USA.


Cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE) is a life-threatening condition that is frequently encountered in standard emergency medicine practice. Traditionally, diagnosis was based on physical assessment and chest radiography and treatment focused on the use of morphine sulfate and diuretics. Numerous advances in diagnosis and treatment have been made, however. Serum testing for B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has improved the accuracy of diagnoses in these patients. Treatment should focus on fluid redistribution with aggressive preload and afterload reduction rather than simply on diuresis. Some specific medications and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation have been shown to be safe and rapidly effective in improving patients' symptoms and improve outcomes.

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