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Phys Rev Lett. 2005 Sep 9;95(11):113402. Epub 2005 Sep 9.

Observation of mixed fermionic-bosonic helium clusters by transmission grating diffraction.

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  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Bunsenstrasse 10, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany.


Small weakly bound boson-fermion 4He(m) 3He(n) clusters formed in a free jet expansion are identified using nondestructive transmission grating diffraction. The observations confirm the existence of more than 11 very tenuous complexes including the three-body halo molecule 4He2 3He and the pseudo-Borromean complex 4He2 3He2. Effective cluster formation temperatures, extracted from a sudden freeze model for cluster growth using theoretical binding energies, increase smoothly with cluster size, thereby confirming the calculations with the possible exception of 4He2 3He2.

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