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J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 5;267(19):13535-9.

Regulation of rat glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene expression. DNA-protein interaction at the antioxidant responsive element.

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  • 1Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, Pointe Claire-Dorval, Quebec, Canada.


We have characterized the interaction of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in the 5'-flanking region of the rat glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit gene with its trans-acting factor. The ARE core sequence, 5'-ggTGACaaaGC-3', previously identified as the cis-acting element required for activation of the Ya subunit gene by planar aromatic compounds and phenolic antioxidants, is shown to be the high affinity recognition motif for a trans-acting factor(s) as determined by gel mobility shift assays as well as methylation interference and protection studies. The DNA-protein interaction appears to occur in the major groove and involves the GpG dinucleotide preceding and the G residue within the TGAC tetramer on the coding strand of the core sequence. In addition, DNase I protection analysis maps an extended region 5' from the core recognition motif, which was shown previously to be essential for basal activity of the ARE. The trans-acting factor is present in nuclear extracts from untreated and tert-butylhydroquinone-treated cells as determined by photochemical cross-linking experiments. The cross-linked protein appears to be a heterodimer with subunit molecular weights of approximately 28,000 and approximately 45,000.

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