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Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug;13(3):219-28.

Immediate antecedents of cigarette smoking in smokers with and without posttraumatic stress disorder: a preliminary study.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27705, USA.


Using ambulatory methods for 1 day of monitoring, the authors of this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 63 smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 32 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 682 smoking and 444 nonsmoking situations by group status. Smoking was strongly related to craving, positive and negative affect, PTSD symptoms, restlessness, and several situational variables among PTSD smokers. For non-PTSD smokers, the only significant antecedent variables for smoking were craving, drinking coffee, being alone, not being with family, not working, and being around others who were smoking. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers but also underscore that, in certain populations, mood and symptom variables may be significantly associated with ad lib smoking.

((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

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