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J Biomech. 2006;39(12):2213-20. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Associations among knee adduction moment, frontal plane ground reaction force, and lever arm during walking in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

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  • 1Wolf Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, 3M Centre, University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., Canada.


The adduction moment about the knee during walking gait has been proposed as an indirect measure of dynamic knee joint load. However, the relative contributions of the variables primarily used to calculate the knee adduction moment have not been investigated. The objectives of this paper were to: (1) describe and compare the magnitude and temporal characteristics of the knee adduction moment, frontal plane lever arm, and frontal plane ground reaction force (GRF) during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) and, (2) examine the associations among these variables. Results indicated that both the knee adduction moment and the frontal plane GRF varied considerably throughout stance and exhibited the characteristic "double-hump" pattern, while the frontal plane lever arm magnitude varied only slightly during stance. Knees with OA had significantly greater peak knee adduction moments and frontal plane lever arms, but significantly less peak frontal plane GRF than knees without OA. Pearson product moment correlations indicated a higher association between peak knee adduction moment and peak frontal plane lever arm than between peak knee adduction moment and peak frontal plane GRF, particularly in knees with OA. These results suggest that the frontal plane lever arm assessed during walking is an important variable in the examination of knee OA, and warrants further investigation.

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