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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Aug;89(2):194-204.

Up and down in middle age: monotonic and nonmonotonic changes in roles, status, and personality.

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  • 1Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-5050, USA.


It is proposed that personality (conceptualized in terms of motives and psychological resources) changes normatively not only from young adulthood to middle age but also within middle age and that these changes take place in relation to social and biosocial change over the same period. Data from 123 women studied at ages 27, 43, 52, and 61 largely supported hypotheses about change in social roles, status, health, motives, personality characteristics, emotion regulation, and relationships. Noteworthy aspects of the findings were substantial curvilinear change within middle age and associations of work involvement and physical health with personality change during late middle age.

2005 APA, all rights reserved

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