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Circulation. 2005 Aug 30;112(9 Suppl):I184-9.

Molecular indices of apoptosis after intermittent blood and crystalloid cardioplegia.

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  • 1Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We investigated whether intermittent blood and crystalloid cardioplegia differentially affect myocardial apoptosis and apoptosis gene-related proteins.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Rabbit hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer on a Langendorff apparatus. Control hearts (n=6) were perfused for 120 minutes without cardioplegic ischemia. Hearts were arrested for 60 minutes with warm (37 degrees C) crystalloid cardioplegia (iW-CCP) (n=8) or with warm blood cardioplegia (iW-BCP) (n=8) administered intermittently. In cold (0 to 4 degrees C) groups, hearts were arrested for 60 minutes with cold crystalloid cardioplegia (iC-CCP; n=8) or with cold blood cardioplegia (iC-BCP; n=6) administered intermittently. The hearts were reperfused for 30 minutes with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. iC-BCP significantly preserved the recovery of left ventricular and microvascular function compared with the other 3 experimental groups. There were no significant differences in total protein levels of caspase 3, Bcl-2, Bad, and Bax among the groups. iC-BCP significantly induced greater phosphorylation of Bad (5.6+/-0.8-fold) as compared with the other 3 groups (3.4+/-0.6-fold in iC-CCP, P<0.05; 2.5+/-0.3 in iW-BCP, P<0.05; and 1.4+/-0.2 in iW-CCP, P<0.01). iC-BCP induced less caspase 3 activation and apoptosis than the other 3 groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

iC-BCP is superior to the other cardioplegic solutions in increasing the phosphorylation of Bad, inhibiting the activation of caspase 3, and preventing apoptosis. These effects of iC-BCP were associated with preserved left ventricular function and endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary microvessels.

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