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Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2005 Sep;42(5):565-9.

Spontaneous verbal labeling: visual memory and reading ability in children with cleft.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA.



The purpose of this study was to examine different types of short-term memory deficits (visual versus verbal) of children with cleft and to determine what type of memory deficits were associated with reading disorders.


The study examined memory and reading in 48 consecutive cases of children with cleft, aged 7 to 9 years. A memory test designed to assess memory modalities (verbal-visual) was administered, along with tests of reading ability.


Visual and verbal memory were examined with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The memory pattern indicated greatest deficit in visual memory. Two subgroups were formed, according to whether or not there was evidence of visual memory impairment. A hit rate predicting reading disability based on group membership was calculated to be 65%. Visual memory was significantly correlated with reading ability (r = .48).


A brief visual memory test was almost as good as Full Scale IQ in predicting reading disability.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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