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J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Sep;60(5):P268-75.

Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults.

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  • 1Department of Kinesiology, University of Illinois, 906 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. emcauley@uiuc.edu


We examined the structure of the expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model in a sample of older adults (N = 174; age, M = 66.7 years) across a 4-year period. A panel analysis revealed support for the indirect effects of physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy (SE) on physical self-worth and global esteem through subdomain levels of esteem. These relationships were consistent across the 4-year period. Over time, older adults reporting greater reductions in SE and PA also reported greater reductions in subdomain esteem. This is one of the first studies to examine these relationships longitudinally in the PA domain and offers further support for the hierarchical and multidimensional nature of self-esteem at the physical level. We recommend further testing of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model, with special attention being paid to assessing multiple aspects of PA and SE.

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