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Lancet. 2005 Aug 27-Sep 2;366(9487):749-62.

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

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  • 1All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India. mkbhan@dbt.nic.in

Abstract

Typhoid fever is estimated to have caused 21.6 million illnesses and 216,500 deaths globally in 2000, affecting all ages. There is also one case of paratyphoid fever for every four of typhoid. The global emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and of strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is of great concern. We discuss the occurrence of poor clinical response to fluoroquinolones despite disc sensitivity. Developments are being made in our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis, and genomic and proteomic studies reveal the possibility of new targets for diagnosis and treatment. Further, we review guidelines for use of diagnostic tests and for selection of antimicrobials in varying clinical situations. The importance of safe water, sanitation, and immunisation in the presence of increasing antibiotic resistance is paramount. Routine immunisation of school-age children with Vi or Ty21a vaccine is recommended for countries endemic for typhoid. Vi vaccine should be used for 2-5 year-old children in highly endemic settings.

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PMID:
16125594
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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