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Nat Rev Cancer. 2005 Sep;5(9):713-25.

Urothelial tumorigenesis: a tale of divergent pathways.

Author information

  • Department of Urology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA. xue-ru.wu@med.nyu.edu


Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder is unique among epithelial carcinomas in its divergent pathways of tumorigenesis. Low-grade papillary tumours rarely become muscle-invasive and they frequently harbour gene mutations that constitutively activate the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway. By contrast, most high-grade invasive tumours progress to life-threatening metastases and have defects in the p53 and the retinoblastoma protein pathways. Correcting pathway-specific defects represents an attractive strategy for the molecular therapy of urothelial carcinomas.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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