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Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2005 Oct;16(5):568-76.

Culture development for human embryonic stem cell propagation: molecular aspects and challenges.

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  • 1Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Room 407, Roseburgh Building, 4 Taddle Creek Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G9, Canada.


Basic fibroblast growth factor and members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are important regulators of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal. Extensive cross-talk between the intracellular signaling pathways activated by these factors contributes to maintenance of the undifferentiated hESC state. Understanding the molecular regulation of hESC self-renewal will facilitate the design of improved systems for hESC propagation and provide a foundation for strategies to direct the differentiation of hESCs to clinically relevant cell types.

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