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J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 14;280(41):35062-8. Epub 2005 Aug 9.

Phospholipid scramblase 1 binds to the promoter region of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1 gene to enhance its expression.

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  • 1Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.


Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is a multiply palmitoylated, endofacial membrane protein originally identified based on its capacity to promote accelerated transbilayer phospholipid movement in response to Ca(2+). Recent evidence suggests that this protein also participates in cell response to various growth factors and cytokines, influencing myeloid differentiation, tumor growth, and the antiviral activity of interferon. Whereas plasma membrane PLSCR1 was shown to be required for normal recruitment and activation of Src kinase by stimulated cell surface growth factor receptors, PLSCR1 was also found to traffic into the nucleus and to tightly bind to genomic DNA, suggesting a possible additional nuclear function. We now report evidence that PLSCR1 directly binds to the 5'-promoter region of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 1 gene (IP3R1) to enhance expression of the receptor. Probing a CpG island genomic library with PLSCR1 as bait identified four clones with avidity for PLSCR1, including a 191-bp fragment of the IP3R1 promoter. Using electrophoretic mobility shift and transcription reporter assays, the PLSCR1-binding site in IP3R1 was mapped to residues (-101)GTAACCATGTGGA(-89), and the segment spanning Met(86)-Glu(118) in PLSCR1 was identified to mediate its transcriptional activity. The significance of this interaction between PLSCR1 and IP3R1 in situ was confirmed by comparing levels of IP3R1 mRNA and protein in matched cells that either expressed or were deficient in PLSCR1. These data suggest that in addition to its role at the plasma membrane, effects of PLSCR1 on cell proliferative and maturational responses may also relate to alterations in expression of cellular IP3 receptors.

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