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Phys Rev Lett. 2005 May 27;94(20):203904. Epub 2005 May 24.

Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).

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  • 1LPL, Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538 C.N.R.S., UniversitĂ© Paris 13, 99, avenue J.-B. ClĂ©ment, 93430 Villetaneuse, France.


We use a new technique to disseminate microwave reference signals along ordinary optical fiber. The fractional frequency resolution of a link of 86 km in length is 10(-17) for a one day integration time, a resolution higher than the stability of the best microwave or optical clocks. We use the link to compare the microwave reference and a CO2/OsO4 frequency standard that stabilizes a femtosecond laser frequency comb. This demonstrates a resolution of 3 x 10(-14) at 1 s. An upper value of the instability introduced by the femtosecond laser-based synthesizer is estimated as 1 x 10(-14) at 1 s.

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