Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2005;43:361-94.

Exploiting chinks in the plant's armor: evolution and emergence of geminiviruses.

Author information

  • 1Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.


The majority of plant-infecting viruses utilize an RNA genome, suggesting that plants have imposed strict constraints on the evolution of DNA viruses. The geminiviruses represent a family of DNA viruses that has circumvented these impediments to emerge as one of the most successful viral pathogens, causing severe economic losses to agricultural production worldwide. The genetic diversity reflected in present-day geminiviruses provides important insights into the evolution and biology of these pathogens. To maximize replication of their DNA genome, these viruses acquired and evolved mechanisms to manipulate the plant cell cycle machinery for DNA replication, and to optimize the number of cells available for infection. In addition, several strategies for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement of the infectious viral DNA were evolved and refined to be compatible with the constraints imposed by the host endogenous macromolecular trafficking machinery. Mechanisms also evolved to circumvent the host antiviral defense systems. Effectively combatting diseases caused by geminiviruses represents a major challenge and opportunity for biotechnology.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk