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Environ Geochem Health. 2005 Sep;27(3):217-27.

Concentrations of inorganic elements in bottled waters on the Swedish market.

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  • 1Inst. of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.


This study presents the concentrations of about 50 metals and ions in 33 different brands of bottled waters on the Swedish market. Ten of the brands showed calcium (Ca) concentrations </=10 mg L(-1) and magnesium (Mg) levels <3 mg L(-1), implying very soft waters. Three of these waters had in addition low concentrations of sodium (Na; <7 mg L(-1)), potassium (K; <3 mg L(-1)) and bicarbonate (HCO(3) </=31 mg L(-1)). These brands were collected from barren districts. Nine of the brands were collected from limestone regions. They showed increased Ca-levels exceeding 50 mg L(-1) with a maximum of 289 mg L(-1). Corresponding Mg-levels were also raised in two brands exceeding 90 mg L(-1). Two soft and carbonated waters were supplemented with Na(2)CO(3) and NaCl, resulting in high concentrations of Na (644 and 648 mg L(-1)) and chloride (Cl; 204 and 219 mg L(-1)). Such waters may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of NaCl in high water consumers. The storage of carbonated drinking water in aluminum (Al) cans increased the Al-concentration to about 70 microg L(-1). Conclusion As there was a large variation in the material as regards concentrations of macro-elements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K and Cl. Supplementation with salts, e.g., Na(2)CO(3), K(2) CO(3) and NaCl, can lead to increased concentrations of Na, K and Cl, as well as decreased ratios of Ca/Na and larger ratios of Na/K. Water with high concentrations of e.g., Ca and Mg, may make a substantial contribution to the daily intake of these elements in high water consumers. Al cans are less suited for storage of carbonated waters, as the lowered pH-values may dissolve Al. The levels of potentially toxic metals in the studied brands were generally low.

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