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Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Aug;25(16):7144-57.

Positive and negative regulation of the transforming growth factor beta/activin target gene goosecoid by the TFII-I family of transcription factors.

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  • 1Molecular Cardiology Research Institute, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.


Goosecoid (Gsc) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor present in a wide variety of vertebrate species and known to regulate formation and patterning of embryos. Here we show that in embryonic carcinoma P19 cells, the transcription factor TFII-I forms a complex with Smad2 upon transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)/activin stimulation, is recruited to the distal element (DE) of the Gsc promoter, and activates Gsc transcription. Downregulation of endogenous TFII-I by small inhibitory RNA in P19 cells abolishes the TGFbeta-mediated induction of Gsc. Similarly, Xenopus embryos with endogenous TFII-I expression downregulated by injection of TFII-I-specific antisense oligonucleotides exhibit decreased Gsc expression. Unlike TFII-I, the related factor BEN (binding factor for early enhancer) is constitutively recruited to the distal element in the absence of TGFbeta/activin signaling and is replaced by the TFII-I/Smad2 complex upon TGFbeta/activin stimulation. Overexpression of BEN in P19 cells represses the TGFbeta-mediated transcriptional activation of Gsc. These results suggest a model in which TFII-I family proteins have opposing effects in the regulation of the Gsc gene in response to a TGFbeta/activin signal.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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