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J Virol. 2005 Aug;79(16):10429-41.

Regulation of the interaction between glycogen synthase kinase 3 and the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Japan.


The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein stabilizes beta-catenin by the novel mechanism of binding to the negative regulator, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), and depleting cytoplasmic GSK-3 levels. The two domains of LANA required for interaction with GSK-3 were further characterized. Evidence for similarity between the C-terminal LANA interaction domain and the axin GSK-3 interaction domain was obtained using GSK-3 and LANA mutants. GSK-3(F291L), which does not interact with axin, also failed to bind to LANA, and a mutation in the axin homology domain of LANA, L1132P, destroyed binding to GSK-3. The N-terminal LANA interaction domain was found to mediate interaction by acting as a substrate for GSK-3. GSK-3(R96A), a priming pocket mutant, did not bind to LANA, suggesting that LANA was a primed GSK-3 substrate. Phosphorylation of endogenous LANA precipitated from primary effusion lymphoma cells was inhibited by the GSK-3 inhibitor LiCl. GST-LANA(1-340) was phosphorylated by GSK-3, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and casein kinase I functioned as priming kinases in vitro. Mutation of consensus GSK-3 sites revealed that sites between LANA amino acids 219 and 268 were important for GSK-3 phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that loss of GSK-3 phosphorylation of this N-terminal domain correlated with loss of GSK-3 interaction. Although LANA-associated GSK-3 actively phosphorylated LANA, GSK-3 coprecipitated with LANA was unable to phosphorylate an exogenous peptide substrate. LANA sequestration of GSK-3 may explain the ability of KSHV-infected cells to tolerate increased levels of nuclear GSK-3.

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