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Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2005 Aug;49(7):949-55.

Fluid shift is moderate and short-lived during acute crystalloid hemodilution and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Institute for Surgical Sciences, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.



Crystalloids are commonly used as priming solutions during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Consequently, hemodilution is a regular occurrence at the start of a CPB. This study describes the time-course variations of hemodynamic parameters, plasma volume (PV) and fluid exchange following crystalloid hemodilution at start of normothermic CPB.


Forty-five anesthetized piglets were given 60-min normothermic CPB. Ringer's solution was used as priming solution and maintenance fluid. Fluid input/losses, PV, colloid osmotic pressures (plasma/interstitium), hematocrit, and s-proteins were measured, and fluid extravasation rates (FER) and intravascular protein-masses calculated.


Start of CPB resulted in a 25-30% hemodilution. To keep the fluid level of the CPB-reservoir constant after start of bypass, fluid addition [2.08 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SEM) ml kg(-1) min(-1)] was necessary during the first 5 min. Thereafter the fluid needs to be leveled off [0.17 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (10-60 min), P < 0.001]. Fluid extravasation rate increased immediately following hemodilution from a baseline value of 0.08 +/- 0.01 to 1.75 +/- 0.34 ml kg(-1) min(-1) with a delayed decrease compared to fluid additions, to reach a 'steady-state' level of 0.22 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) after 30 min (P < 0.001). Differences in time-course variations between fluid added and fluid extravasated were accompanied by changes in PV and mean arterial pressure. The colloid osmotic gradient decreased about 50% throughout the study and could partly explain the increased FER.


Acute crystalloid hemodilution contributes to fluid overload during normothermic CPB. The resulting increase in fluid extravasation is, however, moderate, short-lived and levels off to baseline values within 30 min.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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