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DNA Repair (Amst). 2005 Nov 21;4(11):1240-51. Epub 2005 Jul 21.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD53 (CHK2) but not CHK1 is required for double-strand break-initiated SCE and DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to X rays and chemical agents.

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  • 1Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208, USA.


Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD53 (CHK2) and CHK1 control two parallel branches of the RAD9-mediated pathway for DNA damage-induced G(2) arrest. Previous studies indicate that RAD9 is required for X-ray-associated sister chromatid exchange (SCE), suppresses homology-directed translocations, and is involved in pathways for double-strand break repair (DSB) repair that are different than those controlled by PDS1. We measured DNA damage-associated SCE in strains containing two tandem fragments of his3, his3-Delta5' and his3-Delta3'::HOcs, and rates of spontaneous translocations in diploids containing GAL1::his3-Delta5' and trp1::his3-Delta3'::HOcs. DNA damage-associated SCE was measured after log phase cells were exposed to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO), UV, X rays and HO-induced DSBs. We observed that rad53 mutants were defective in MMS-, 4-NQO, X-ray-associated and HO-induced SCE but not in UV-associated SCE. Similar to rad9 pds1 double mutants, rad53 pds1 double mutants exhibited more X-ray sensitivity than the single mutants. rad53 sml1 diploid mutants exhibited a 10-fold higher rate of spontaneous translocations compared to the sml1 diploid mutants. chk1 mutants were not deficient in DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to DNA damaging agents or after DSBs were generated at trp1::his3-Delta5'his3-Delta3'::HOcs. These data indicate that RAD53, not CHK1, is required for DSB-initiated SCE, and DNA damage-associated SCE after exposure to X-ray-mimetic and UV-mimetic chemicals.

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