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Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Aug 15;440(2):123-32.

Tissue factor mediates inflammation.

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  • 1MRC, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063, PR China.


The role of tissue factor (TF) in inflammation is mediated by blood coagulation. TF initiates the extrinsic blood coagulation that proceeds as an extracellular signaling cascade by a series of active serine proteases: FVIIa, FXa, and thrombin (FIIa) for fibrin clot production in the presence of phospholipids and Ca2+. TF upregulation resulting from its enhanced exposure to clotting factor FVII/FVIIa often manifests not only hypercoagulable but also inflammatory state. Coagulant mediators (FVIIa, FXa, and FIIa) are proinflammatory, which are largely transmitted by protease-activated receptors (PAR) to elicit inflammation including the expression of tissue necrosis factor, interleukins, adhesion molecules (MCP-1, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, selectins, etc.), and growth factors (VEGF, PDGF, bFGF, etc.). In addition, fibrin, and its fragments are also able to promote inflammation. In the event of TF hypercoagulability accompanied by the elevations in clotting signals including fibrin overproduction, the inflammatory consequence could be enormous. Antagonism to coagulation-dependent inflammation includes (1) TF downregulation, (2) anti-coagulation, and (3) PAR blockade. TF downregulation and anti-coagulation prevent and limit the proceeding of coagulation cascade in the generation of proinflammatory coagulant signals, while PAR antagonists block the transmission of such signals. These approaches are of significance in interrupting the coagulation-inflammation cycle in contribution to not only anti-inflammation but also anti-thrombosis for cardioprotection.

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