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A systematic evaluation of ADHD and comorbid psychopathology in a population-based twin sample.

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  • 1Doctoral Program in Public Health Studies, Saint Louis University School of Public Health, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Clinical and population samples demonstrate that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) occurs with other disorders. Comorbid disorder clustering within ADHD subtypes is not well studied.

METHOD:

Latent class analysis (LCA) examined the co-occurrence of DSM-IV ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and depression symptoms in a population twin sample. The authors fit separate models for ADHD and comorbid disorder symptoms. Twin concordance ratios (monozygotic versus dizygotic) were compared examining genetic influence on class membership.

RESULTS:

LCA of ADHD symptoms resulted in seven classes including inattentive, combined, and hyperactive subtypes in 1,616 subjects. The few ADHD symptoms (53.4%) and severe inattentive (12.3%) classes were most frequent. LCA of ODD, CD, and depression symptoms in 1,587 subjects revealed five classes including ODD (19.4%), depression (14.5%), and two composite classes: ODD/CD (6.9%) and ODD/CD/depression (7.2%). Internalizing and externalizing comorbid disorders were present across all ADHD subtypes. Odds ratios (ORs) for twin concordance indicate genetic influence on severe inattentive (OR = 4.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-11.53) and combined (OR = 5.25; 95% CI, 1.32-20.78) ADHD classes and ODD (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 0.70-3.17), ODD/CD (OR = 3.32; 95% CI, 0.57-19.28), and ODD/CD/depression (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.30-4.77) classes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Internalizing and externalizing disorders did not cluster differentially within ADHD subtypes. LCA may provide a more precise characterization of comorbidity with ADHD.

PMID:
16034278
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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