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J Med Virol. 2005 Sep;77(1):107-12.

A genotype distribution of human papillomaviruses detected by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing analysis in a large sample of common warts in Japan.

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  • 1Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.


There have been no large-scale epidemiological studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution of common warts in Japan. A total of 213 patients with common warts (104 males and 109 females) in Japan were studied to detect HPV genotype distribution by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing analysis. The results were as follows: 94 HPV-1a (44.1%), 35 HPV-4 (16.4%), 30 HPV-65 (14.1%), 13 HPV-27 (6.1%), 13 HPV-2a (6.1%), 9 HPV-57b (4.22%), 3 HPV-16 (1.41%), 2 HPV-6a (0.94%), 2 HPV-63 (0.94%), and 1 case for each of HPV-3, -5, -5b, -7, -10, -21, -29, -47, -56, -57, -62, and -92 (0.47%, respectively). Four cases (1.88%) were found in which two different HPV types were detected within the lesions: one case of HPV-1a with HPV-16, one case of HPV-1a with HPV-65, one case of HPV-6a with HPV-8, and one case of HPV-65 with HPV-16. There were seven cases of mucosal types (3.3%), that is, two HPV-6a, three HPV-16, one HPV-56, and one HPV-62, and three cases of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-related types (1.41%), that is, one HPV-5, one HPV-5b (both of which belonged to a high-risk group), and one HPV-47 (which belonged to a low-risk group). To date, this is the largest sequencing-based study of HPV for common warts in Japan. It is said that common warts are induced predominantly by HPV-2, -27, and -57 in European population. However, the present results showed that in Japan they were induced mostly by HPV-1, -4, and -65. This suggests that regional differences in HPV genotype distribution may exist between European and Japanese populations.

(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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