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BMC Evol Biol. 2005 Jul 15;5:41.

Genome wide survey of G protein-coupled receptors in Tetraodon nigroviridis.

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  • 1National Centre for Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, UAS-GKVK Campus, Bellary Road, Bangalore 560065, India.



The G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute one of the largest and most ancient superfamilies of membrane proteins. They play a central role in physiological processes affecting almost all aspects of the life cycle of an organism. Availability of the complete sets of putative members of a family from diverse species provides the basis for cross genome comparative studies.


We have defined the repertoire of GPCR superfamily of Tetraodon complement with the availability of complete sequence of the freshwater puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis. Almost all 466 Tetraodon GPCRs (Tnig-GPCRs) identified had a clear human homologue. 189 putative human and Tetraodon GPCR orthologous pairs could be identified. Tetraodon GPCRs are classified into five GRAFS families, by phylogenetic analysis, concurrent with human GPCR classification.


Direct comparison of GPCRs in Tetraodon and human genomes displays a high level of orthology and supports large-scale gene duplications in Tetraodon. Examples of lineage specific gene expansions were also observed in opsin and odorant receptors. The human and Tetraodon GPCR sequences are analogous in terms of GPCR subfamilies but display disproportionate numbers of receptors at the subfamily level. The teleost genome with its expanded set of GPCRs provides additional and interesting comparators to study both evolution and function of these receptors.

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