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Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):73-8. Epub 2005 Jul 2.

Risk factors for painful bladder syndrome in women seeking gynecologic care.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.


The aim of this cross-sectional study was to report risk factors for painful bladder syndrome in women. We surveyed 645 women presenting for care to general gynecology clinics and a vulvar specialty clinic using a standardized questionnaire and validated outcome measures. We used two definitions for painful bladder syndrome, based on the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis symptom and problem indices. Of those women surveyed, 29.5% met broader criteria and 8.5% met more restrictive criteria for painful bladder syndrome. After adjusting for confounders, bladder pain was significantly associated with current smoking, irritable bowel syndrome, and a generalized pain disorder. Tobacco use, the only modifiable association noted on multivariate analysis, has not been previously identified to our knowledge.

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