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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 12;102(28):9784-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29.

Evolution of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthase-encoding genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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  • 1Molekulare Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Institut für Mikrobiologie und Genetik, Grisebachstrasse 8, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany.

Abstract

The shikimate pathway resulting in three aromatic amino acids is initiated in different organisms by two and three 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthases, respectively. Aro3p and Aro4p are the yeast enzymes feedback-inhibited by phenylalanine and tyrosine, respectively. A yeast strain deficient in the general control transcriptional regulatory system of amino acid biosynthesis is unable to live in the presence of high amounts of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Here, we show that this yeast strain can be rescued by the expression of aroH from Escherichia coli encoding the tryptophan-regulated AroH as third isoenzyme. Yeast carrying Ec AroH as the only enzyme for the initial step of the shikimate pathway can grow in the absence of tryptophan. Without aromatic amino acids, this yeast strain survives only when the yeast ARO3 promoter instead of the ARO4 promoter drives E. coli aroH. The detailed analysis of Aro3p and Aro4p revealed a triple feedback control by tyrosine/phenylalanine and tryptophan. Dissecting this control allowed engineering of Aro4p S195A as an enzyme, which is inhibited like AroH only by tryptophan. In addition, Aro4p variants were constructed that show an equally strong inhibition by tyrosine and tryptophan (Aro4p P165G Q302R) and in which the regulation by tyrosine and tryptophan was reversed (Aro4p P165G). Our data suggest that yeast possesses only two instead of three isogenes encoding 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate synthases because both isoenzymes can be fine tuned by tryptophan as additional effector and because transcriptional regulation by the general control system can be induced as backup when aromatic amino acids in the environment are imbalanced.

PMID:
15987779
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC1175010
Free PMC Article
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