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Nucleic Acids Res. 2005 Jul 1;33(Web Server issue):W605-10.

Kinefold web server for RNA/DNA folding path and structure prediction including pseudoknots and knots.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Dynamique des Fluides Complexes, CNRS-ULP, Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l'Université, 67000 Strasbourg, France.


The Kinefold web server provides a web interface for stochastic folding simulations of nucleic acids on second to minute molecular time scales. Renaturation or co-transcriptional folding paths are simulated at the level of helix formation and dissociation in agreement with the seminal experimental results. Pseudoknots and topologically 'entangled' helices (i.e. knots) are efficiently predicted taking into account simple geometrical and topological constraints. To encourage interactivity, simulations launched as immediate jobs are automatically stopped after a few seconds and return adapted recommendations. Users can then choose to continue incomplete simulations using the batch queuing system or go back and modify suggested options in their initial query. Detailed output provide (i) a series of low free energy structures, (ii) an online animated folding path and (iii) a programmable trajectory plot focusing on a few helices of interest to each user. The service can be accessed at

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