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Science. 2005 Jun 17;308(5729):1786-9.

Nodulation signaling in legumes requires NSP2, a member of the GRAS family of transcriptional regulators.

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  • 1Departments of Disease and Stress Biology and Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.


Rhizobial bacteria enter a symbiotic interaction with legumes, activating diverse responses in roots through the lipochito oligosaccharide signaling molecule Nod factor. Here, we show that NSP2 from Medicago truncatula encodes a GRAS protein essential for Nod-factor signaling. NSP2 functions downstream of Nod-factor-induced calcium spiking and a calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. We show that NSP2-GFP expressed from a constitutive promoter is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope and relocalizes to the nucleus after Nod-factor elicitation. This work provides evidence that a GRAS protein transduces calcium signals in plants and provides a possible regulator of Nod-factor-inducible gene expression.

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