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Am J Epidemiol. 1992 May 1;135(9):1042-50.

Selection of controls in case-control studies. III. Design options.

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  • 1Biostatistics Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.


Several design options available in the planning stage of case-control studies are examined. Topics covered include matching, control/case ratio, choice of nested case-control or case-cohort design, two-stage sampling, and other methods that can be used for control selection. The effect of potential problems in obtaining comparable accuracy of exposure is also examined. A discussion of the difficulty in meeting the principles of study base, deconfounding, and comparable accuracy (S. Wacholder et al. Am J Epidemiol 1992;135:1019-28) in a single study completes this series of papers.

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