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J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 5;280(31):28290-8. Epub 2005 Jun 13.

Leukocyte function-associated antigen 1-mediated adhesion stability is dynamically regulated through affinity and valency during bond formation with intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.


Neutrophil rolling and transition to arrest on inflamed endothelium are dynamically regulated by the affinity of the beta(2) integrin CD11a/CD18 (leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1)) for binding intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Conformational shifts are thought to regulate molecular affinity and adhesion stability. Also critical to adhesion efficiency is membrane redistribution of active LFA-1 into dense submicron clusters where multimeric interactions occur. We examined the influences of affinity and dimerization of LFA-1 on LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding by engineering a cell-free model in which two recombinant LFA-1 heterodimers are bound to respective Fab domains of an antibody attached to latex microspheres. Binding of monomeric and dimeric ICAM-1 to dimeric LFA-1 was measured in real time by fluorescence flow cytometry. ICAM-1 dissociation kinetics were measured while LFA-1 affinity was dynamically shifted by the addition of allosteric small molecules. High affinity LFA-1 dissociated 10-fold faster when bound to monomeric compared with dimeric ICAM-1, corresponding to bond lifetimes of 25 and 330 s, respectively. Downshifting LFA-1 into an intermediate affinity state with the small molecule I domain allosteric inhibitor IC487475 decreased the difference in dissociation rates between monomeric and dimeric ICAM-1 to 4-fold. When LFA-1 was shifted into the low affinity state by lovastatin, both monomeric and dimeric ICAM-1 dissociated in less than 1 s, and the dissociation rates were within 50% of each other. These data reveal the respective importance of LFA-1 affinity and proximity in tuning bond lifetime with ICAM-1 and demonstrate a nonlinear increase in the bond lifetime of the dimer versus the monomer at higher affinity.

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