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Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2005 Aug;36(2):391-404. Epub 2005 Mar 23.

Phylogeny and character evolution of endemic Australian carabid beetles of the genus Pamborus based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

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  • 1Department of Zoology, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.


The phylogeny of carabid beetles in the genus Pamborus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), which is endemic to Australia, was studied using one nuclear (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and two mitochondrial (16S ribosomal RNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) gene sequences, with a cladistic analysis of morphological data. Fourteen species that were morphologically distinguishable were used as ingroup taxa, and Maoripamborus fairburni from New Zealand was assigned as the outgroup. Simultaneous analysis of three gene sequences resulted in well-resolved trees that were largely consistent with the cladogram generated from the morphological data. Based on a clock-like tree calibrated to the New Zealand-Australia/Antarctica split 85 million years ago, it was estimated that extant Pamborus differentiated after the Oligocene, primarily since the mid-Miocene with the onset of a more arid climate and forest fragmentation in Australia. The ancestral Pamborus may have been small, whereas medium to large Pamborus species with exaggerated male genitalia constitute derived groups and are now dominant.

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