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Blood. 2005 Oct 1;106(7):2329-33. Epub 2005 Jun 9.

The impact of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genetic polymorphism and patient characteristics upon warfarin dose requirements: proposal for a new dosing regimen.

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  • 1School of Clinical & Laboratory Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.


Current dosing algorithms do not account for genetic and environmental factors for warfarin dose determinations. This study investigated the contribution of age, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, and body size to warfarin-dose requirements. Studied were 297 patients with stable anticoagulation with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 to 3.0. Genetic analyses for CYP2C9 (*2 and *3 alleles) and VKORC1 (-1639 polymorphism) were performed and venous INR and plasma R- and S-warfarin concentrations determined. The mean warfarin daily dose requirement was highest in CYP2C9 homozygous wild-type patients, compared with those with the variant *2 and *3 alleles (P < .001) and highest in patients with the VKORC1 (position -1639) GG genotype compared with those with the GA genotype and the AA genotype (P < .001). Mean warfarin daily dose requirements fell by 0.5 to 0.7 mg per decade between the ages of 20 to 90 years. Age, height, and CYP2C9 genotype significantly contributed to S-warfarin and total warfarin clearance, whereas only age and body size significantly contributed to R-warfarin clearance. The multivariate regression model including the variables of age, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, and height produced the best model for estimating warfarin dose (R2 = 55%). Based upon the data, a new warfarin dosing regimen has been developed. The validity of the dosing regimen was confirmed in a second cohort of patients on warfarin therapy.

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