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Neuron. 2005 May 19;46(4):526-8.

Expecting the unexpected: modeling of neuromodulation.

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  • Department of Psychology, Center for Memory and Brain and Program in Neuroscience, Boston University, Massachusetts 02215, USA.


An important aspect of decision-making is the need to make interpretations and predictions in the face of uncertain information. In this issue of Neuron, Yu and Dayan describe a model of the role of acetylcholine and norepinephrine in balancing top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory input in guiding behavior. The model builds from data on physiological effects of modulators regulating the balance of cortical feedback and thalamic input.

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