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AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Apr;21(4):256-62.

Seroprevalence and risk factors for human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending AIDS referral center health units in Londrina and other communities in Paraná, Brazil.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, Health Sciences Center, Londrina State University, 86038-440 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.


The municipality of Londrina ranks second in the number of AIDS cases in the state of Paraná, Brazil, with the Ministry of Health notified of 1070 cases from 1984 to 2002. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for HTLV-1/2 infection in HIV-infected patients attending the AIDS Reference Center serving Londrina (and surrounding region), Paraná, Brazil. Data concerning sociodemographic conditions and risk factors were collected from 784 HIV-infected patients, using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 758 of the patients and subjected to serologic screening tests for the determination of HTLV-1/2, as well as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis. Most patients were white (mean age, 35.9 years); 55.9% were males and 44.1% were females. The most frequent sexually transmitted disease was gonorrhea (28.5%), followed by syphilis (14.3%) and condyloma (12.2%). The major risk factors associated with the acquisition of retroviruses were sexual contact (84.8%) and intravenous drug use (IDU, 11.9%). The overall infection seroprevalence was 6.4% for HTLV-1/2, 37.2% for HBV, 21.0% for HCV, and 24.4% for syphilis. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infections were confirmed in 0.8 and 4.9% of patients, respectively. HIV/HTLV-1/2 coinfection was more frequent in IDUs (59.2% of cases) and was strongly associated with HCV (22.60 [95% CI, 10.35-49.35]). A weak association with HBV (2.09 [95% CI, 1.13-3.90]) and no association with syphilis were observed. The results showed that human retroviruses are circulating in southern Brazil, mainly among white people of both genders of low socioeconomic conditions and educational level. Although the sexual route was considered to be the major risk factor for HIV infection, HTLV-1/2 infection was strongly associated with IDU.

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