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Nano Lett. 2005 Jun;5(6):1157-60.

Nanometer patterning with ice.

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  • 1Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. gking@jilau1.colorado.edu

Abstract

Nanostructures can be patterned with focused electron or ion beams in thin, stable, conformal films of water ice grown on silicon. We use these patterns to reliably fabricate sub-20 nm wide metal lines and exceptionally well-defined, sub-10 nanometer beam-induced chemical surface transformations. We argue more generally that solid-phase condensed gases of low sublimation energy are ideal materials for nanoscale patterning, and water, quite remarkably, may be among the most useful.

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