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Circulation. 2005 Jun 14;111(23):3042-50. Epub 2005 Jun 6.

Three-dimensional electroanatomic voltage mapping increases accuracy of diagnosing arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia.

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  • 1Division of Cardiology, University of Padua Medical School, Padua, Italy.



Three-dimensional electroanatomic voltage mapping offers the potential to identify low-voltage areas that correspond to regions of right ventricular (RV) myocardial loss and fibrofatty replacement in patients with arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D).


Thirty-one consecutive patients (22 men and 9 women; mean age, 30.8+/-7 years) who fulfilled the criteria of the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and International Society and Federation of Cardiology (ESC/ISFC) for ARVC/D diagnosis after noninvasive clinical evaluation underwent further invasive study including RV electroanatomic voltage mapping and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) to validate the diagnosis. Multiple RV endocardial, bipolar electrograms (175+/-23) were sampled during sinus rhythm. Twenty patients (group A; 65%) had an abnormal RV electroanatomic voltage mapping showing > or =1 area (mean 2.25+/-0.7) with low-voltage values (bipolar electrogram amplitude <0.5 mV), surrounded by a border zone (0.5 to 1.5 mV) that transitioned into normal myocardium (>1.5 mV). Low-voltage electrograms appeared fractionated with significantly prolonged duration and delayed activation. In 11 patients (group B; 35%), electroanatomic voltage mapping was normal, with preserved electrogram voltage (4.4+/-0.7 mV) and duration (37.2+/-0.9 ms) throughout the RV. Low-voltage areas in patients from group A corresponded to echocardiographic/angiographic RV wall motion abnormalities and were significantly associated with myocyte loss and fibrofatty replacement at EMB (P<0.0001) and familial ARVC/D (P<0.0001). Patients from group B had sporadic disease and histopathological evidence of inflammatory cardiomyopathy (P<0.0001). During the time interval from onset of symptoms to the invasive study, 11 patients (55%) with electroanatomic low-voltage regions received an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator because of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, whereas all but 1 patient with a normal voltage map remained stable on antiarrhythmic drug therapy (P=0.02).


Three-dimensional electroanatomic voltage mapping enhanced accuracy for diagnosing ARVC/D (1) by demonstrating low-voltage areas that were associated with fibrofatty myocardial replacement and (2) by identifying a subset of patients who fulfilled ESC/ISFC Task Force diagnostic criteria but showed a preserved electrogram voltage, an inflammatory cardiomyopathy mimicking ARVC/D, and a better arrhythmic outcome.

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