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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8436-41. Epub 2005 Jun 3.

Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Paléontologie, Institut des Sciences de l'Evolution de Montpellier, Unité Mixte de Recherche-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5554, c.c. 064, Université Montpellier II, Montpellier, France.


Asian tarsiid and sivaladapid primates maintained relictual distributions in southern Asia long after the extirpation of their close Holarctic relatives near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. We report here the discovery of amphipithecid and eosimiid primates from Oligocene coastal deposits in Pakistan that demonstrate that stem anthropoids also survived in southern Asia beyond the climatic deterioration that characterized the Eocene-Oligocene transition. These fossils provide data on temporal and paleobiogeographic aspects of early anthropoid evolution and significantly expand the record of stem anthropoid evolution in the Paleogene of South Asia.

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