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J Biol Chem. 2005 Jul 29;280(30):27578-86. Epub 2005 May 31.

Phosphate-limited oat. The plasma membrane and the tonoplast as major targets for phospholipid-to-glycolipid replacement and stimulation of phospholipases in the plasma membrane.

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  • 1Department of Botany, Göteborg University, P. O. Box 461, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.


We recently reported that cultivation of oat (Avena sativa L.) without phosphate resulted in plasma membrane phosphoglycerolipids being replaced to a large extent by digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) (Andersson, M. X., Stridh, M. H., Larsson, K. E., Liljenberg, C., and Sandelius, A. S. (2003) FEBS Lett. 537, 128-132). We report here that DGDG is not the only non-phosphorous-containing lipid that replaces phospholipids but that also the content of glucosylceramides and sterolglycosides increased in plasma membranes as a response to phosphate starvation. In addition, phosphate deficiency induced similar changes in lipid composition in the tonoplast. The phospholipid-to-glycolipid replacement apparently did not occur to any greater extent in endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or mitochondrial inner membranes. In contrast to the marked effects on lipid composition, the polypeptide patterns were largely similar between root plasma membranes from well-fertilized and phosphate-limited oat, although the latter condition induced at least four polypeptides, including a chaperone of the HSP80 or HSP90 family, a phosphate transporter, and a bacterial-type phosphoesterase. The latter polypeptide reacted with an antibody raised against a phosphate deficiency-induced phospholipase C from Arabidopsis thaliana (Nakamura, Y., Awai, K., Masuda, T., Yoshioka, Y., Takamiya, K., and Ohta, H. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 7469-7476). In plasma membranes from oat, however, a phospholipase D-type activity and a phosphatidic acid phosphatase were the dominant lipase activities induced by phosphate deficiency. Our results reflect a highly developed plasticity in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane and the tonoplast. In addition, phosphate deficiency-induced alterations in plasma membrane lipid composition may involve different sets of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in different plant tissues or species, at different stages of plant development and/or at different stages of stress adjustments.

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