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J Biomed Opt. 2005 Mar-Apr;10(2):024016.

Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra.

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  • 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, NE47-276, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. laiho@hawaii.edu


Spectral resolved tissue imaging has a broad range of biomedical applications such as the minimally invasive diagnosis of diseases and the study of wound healing and tissue engineering processes. Two-photon microscopy imaging of endogenous fluorescence has been shown to be a powerful method for the quantification of tissue structure and biochemistry. While two-photon excited autofluorescence is observed ubiquitously, the identities and distributions of endogenous fluorophores have not been completely characterized in most tissues. We develop an image-guided spectral analysis method to analyze the distribution of fluorophores in human skin from 3-D resolved two-photon images. We identify five factors that contribute to most of the luminescence signals from human skin. Luminescence species identified include tryptophan, NAD(P)H, melanin, and elastin, which are autofluorescent, and collagen that contributes to a second harmonic signal.

Copyright 2005 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

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