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Am J Clin Pathol. 2005 Jun;123(6):874-8.

Ki-67 immunoreactivity in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasms in specimens with extensive crush artifact.

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  • 1Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, USA.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of immunohistochemical markers in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors with particular emphasis on the preservation of immunoreactivity in areas showing crush artifacts. Specimens from 9 carcinoid tumors (CTs) and 13 small cell carcinomas (SCCs) with crush artifact were stained with antibodies to Ki-67, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and cytokeratin. The immunoreactivity was well preserved in the crushed areas. Ki-67 was expressed in the crushed areas of all SCCs. Reactivity was diffuse or at least present in 25% of the crushed areas. In contrast, the immunoreactive areas in CTs never exceeded 10%. Immunoreactivity for Ki-67, synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and cytokeratin is well preserved in tissue with crush artifacts and can be interpreted reliably. The diagnosis of SCC should be questioned if fewer than 25% of cells show reactivity for Ki-67.

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