Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Int J Surg Pathol. 2005 Apr;13(2):143-53.

The 2004 WHO classification of bladder tumors: a summary and commentary.

Author information

  • 1Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, Ancona, Italy.


The key points of the latest World Health Organization (WHO) classification of non-invasive urothelial tumors are the following: the description of the categories has been expanded to improve their recognition; a tumor with particularly good prognosis (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential) no longer carries the label of 'cancer'; it avoids the use of ambiguous grading such as grade 1/2 or 2/3 (as done in the 1973 WHO classification); the group of noninvasive high-grade carcinoma is large enough to virtually contain all those tumors having biological properties similar to those seen in invasive urothelial carcinoma, and a similarly high level of genetic instability. This scheme is meant to replace the 1973 WHO classification, but the use of both the 1973 and the latest WHO classifications is recommended until the latter is sufficiently validated.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk