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Am J Psychiatry. 2005 May;162(5):906-13.

Temperament and character profiles and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in ADHD.

Author information

  • 1UCLA Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 10850 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 200, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA. deborah.lynn@verizon.net

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

This study was designed to investigate the link among attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, novelty-seeking temperament, and the 48-base pair (bp) dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene variant.

METHOD:

This study drew from a larger molecular genetic study of ADHD in which the ascertainment criterion was having an affected sibling pair with ADHD. Parents (N=171) from 96 families provided data. Of the 171 parents, 56 (33%) had a lifetime history of ADHD, with 28 (50%) continuing to meet DSM-IV criteria (i.e., "persistent" ADHD). Latent variable modeling was used to test whether the DRD4 gene variant or Temperament and Character Inventory factors could predict ADHD.

RESULTS:

Using latent variable modeling, the authors were able to confirm the first-order factor structure of the Temperament and Character Inventory. Furthermore, novelty seeking predicted ADHD lifetime diagnosis (R(2)=26%), while the DRD4 gene variant independently predicted ADHD (R(2)=5%) but not novelty seeking.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this unique sample of parents from multiply affected ADHD families, novelty seeking and the 48-bp DRD4 variant were associated with a lifetime history of ADHD. However, the association between novelty seeking and ADHD does not appear to be due to variation in the 48-bp DRD4 variant.

PMID:
15863792
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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