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Gut. 2005 Aug;54(8):1182-93. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2.

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  • 1University Hospital of Essen, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Institutsgruppe I, Virchowstr 171; D-45147 Essen, Germany.


Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD2 are emerging as key mediators of innate host defence in the intestinal mucosa, crucially involved in maintaining mucosal as well as commensal homeostasis. Recent observations suggest new (patho-) physiological mechanisms of how functional versus dysfunctional TLRx/NOD2 pathways may oppose or favour inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In health, TLRx signalling protects the intestinal epithelial barrier and confers commensal tolerance whereas NOD2 signalling exerts antimicrobial activity and prevents pathogenic invasion. In disease, aberrant TLRx and/or NOD2 signalling may stimulate diverse inflammatory responses leading to acute and chronic intestinal inflammation with many different clinical phenotypes.

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