Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
N Engl J Med. 2005 Apr 14;352(15):1550-6.

Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston Marathon.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. christopher.almond@childrens.harvard.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Hyponatremia has emerged as an important cause of race-related death and life-threatening illness among marathon runners. We studied a cohort of marathon runners to estimate the incidence of hyponatremia and to identify the principal risk factors.

METHODS:

Participants in the 2002 Boston Marathon were recruited one or two days before the race. Subjects completed a survey describing demographic information and training history. After the race, runners provided a blood sample and completed a questionnaire detailing their fluid consumption and urine output during the race. Prerace and postrace weights were recorded. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with hyponatremia.

RESULTS:

Of 766 runners enrolled, 488 runners (64 percent) provided a usable blood sample at the finish line. Thirteen percent had hyponatremia (a serum sodium concentration of 135 mmol per liter or less); 0.6 percent had critical hyponatremia (120 mmol per liter or less). On univariate analyses, hyponatremia was associated with substantial weight gain, consumption of more than 3 liters of fluids during the race, consumption of fluids every mile, a racing time of >4:00 hours, female sex, and low body-mass index. On multivariate analysis, hyponatremia was associated with weight gain (odds ratio, 4.2; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 8.2), a racing time of >4:00 hours (odds ratio for the comparison with a time of <3:30 hours, 7.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.9 to 23.1), and body-mass-index extremes.

CONCLUSIONS:

Hyponatremia occurs in a substantial fraction of nonelite marathon runners and can be severe. Considerable weight gain while running, a long racing time, and body-mass-index extremes were associated with hyponatremia, whereas female sex, composition of fluids ingested, and use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were not.

Copyright 2005 Massachusetts Medical Society.

Comment in

  • Hyponatremia in marathon runners. [N Engl J Med. 2005]
  • Hyponatremia in marathon runners. [N Engl J Med. 2005]
  • Hyponatremia in marathon runners. [N Engl J Med. 2005]
  • Marathon maladies. [N Engl J Med. 2005]
PMID:
15829535
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk