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J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 10;280(23):22124-34. Epub 2005 Apr 6.

The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor C terminus modulates beta-arrestin-2 association but is dispensable for ligand-induced desensitization, endocytosis, and G-protein-dependent effector activation.

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  • 1Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, and Medicine, University of Toronto, The Banting and Best Diabetes Centre, Toronto General Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto M5G 2C4, Canada.


Classic models of receptor desensitization and internalization have been largely based on the behavior of Family A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor (GLP-2R) is a member of the Family B glucagon-secretin GPCR family, which exhibit significant sequence and structural differences from the Family A receptors in their intracellular and extracellular domains. To identify structural motifs that regulate GLP-2R signaling and cell surface receptor expression, we analyzed the functional properties of a series of mutant GLP-2Rs. The majority of the C-terminal receptor tail was dispensable for GLP-2-induced cAMP accumulation, ERK1/2 activation, and endocytosis in transfected cells. However, progressive truncation of the C terminus reduced cell surface receptor expression, altered agonist-induced GLP-2R trafficking, and abrogated protein kinase A-mediated heterologous receptor desensitization. Elimination of the distal 21 amino acids of the receptor was sufficient to promote constitutive receptor internalization and prevent agonist-induced recruitment of beta-arrestin-2. Site-directed mutagenesis identified specific amino acid residues within the distal GLP-2R C terminus that mediate the stable association with beta-arrestin-2. Surprisingly, although the truncated mutant receptors failed to interact with beta-arrestin-2, they underwent homologous desensitization and subsequent resensitization with kinetics similar to that observed with the wild-type GLP-2R. Our data suggest that, although the GLP-2R C terminus is not required for coupling to cellular machinery regulating signaling or desensitization, it may serve as a sorting signal for intracellular trafficking. Taken together with the previously demonstrated clathrin and dynamin-independent, lipid-raft-dependent pathways for internalization, our data suggest that GLP-2 receptor signaling has evolved unique structural and functional mechanisms for control of receptor trafficking, desensitization, and resensitization.

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