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Appl Opt. 2005 Apr 1;44(10):1792-7.

In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C0800 ENS10, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.


For in vivo optical diagnostic technologies to be distributed to the developed and developing worlds, optical imaging systems must be constructed of inexpensive components. We present a fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with a cost-effective injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens for in vivo imaging of human tissues in near real time. The measured lateral resolution is less than 2.2 microm, and the measured axial resolution is 10 microm. Confocal images of ex vivo cervical tissue biopsies and in vivo human lip taken at 15 frames/s demonstrate the microscope's capability of imaging cell morphology and tissue architecture.

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