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Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Jul 1;172(1):123-7. Epub 2005 Apr 1.

Risk factors for active tuberculosis after antiretroviral treatment initiation in Abidjan.

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  • 1INSERM U593, UniversitĂ© Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue LĂ©o Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France.



In sub-Saharan Africa: (1) tuberculosis is the first cause of HIV-related mortality; (2) the incidence of tuberculosis in adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is lower than in untreated HIV-infected adults but higher than in HIV-negative adults; and (3) factors associated with the occurrence of tuberculosis in patients receiving HAART have never been described.


To look for the risk factors for active tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Abidjan.


Seven-year prospective cohort of HIV-infected adults, with standardized procedures for documenting morbidity. We analyzed the incidence of active tuberculosis in patients who started HAART and the association between the occurrence of tuberculosis and the characteristics of these patients at HAART initiation.


A total of 129 adults (median baseline CD4 count 125/mm(3)) started HAART and were then followed for 270 person-years (P-Y). At HAART initiation, 31 had a history of tuberculosis and none had current active tuberculosis. During follow-up, the incidence of active tuberculosis was 4.8/100 P-Y (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5-8.3) overall, 3.0/100 P-Y (95% CI, 1.1-6.6) in patients with no tuberculosis history, and 11.3/100 P-Y (95% CI, 4.1-24.5) in patients with a history of tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.29-16.62, p = 0.02).


The risk of tuberculosis after HAART initiation was significantly higher in patients with a history of tuberculosis than in those with no tuberculosis history. If confirmed by others, this finding could lead to assessment of new patterns of time-limited tuberculosis secondary chemoprophylaxis during the period of initiation of HAART in sub-Saharan African adults.

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