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Appl Opt. 2005 Mar 10;44(8):1485-90.

Small-angle goniometry for backscattering measurements in the broadband spectrum.

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  • 1Finnish Geodetic Institute, Geodeetinrinne 2 (P.O. Box 15), FIN-02431 Masala, Finland. sanna.kaasalainen@fgi.fi


We present experiments on spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) effects at backscatter and discuss the feasibility of new methods for laboratory and field simulations of remote sensing of land surfaces. The extreme sharpness of the intensity peak allows both directional and comparative experimental spectral studies of hot spots. We demonstrate wavelength-dependent features in the hot-spot reflectance signatures that facilitate extension of spectral and directional BRDF measurements of natural targets (such as forest understories and ice surfaces) into retroreflection to exploit their hot-spot characteristics in the interpretation of spaceborne and airborne data.

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