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Kidney Int. 2005 Apr;67(4):1526-31.

Incidence and etiology of acute renal failure among ambulatory HIV-infected patients.

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  • 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.



Acute renal failure (ARF) is a cause of renal dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Its incidence and causes have not been studied since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV ambulatory patients.


This is a prospective cohort study of 754 HIV patients, 18 years or older, seen at a university-based infectious disease clinic between 2000 and 2002. ARF was identified using proportional increases in serum creatinine from baseline and by chart review. Clinical conditions were assessed at the time of the ARF event. ARF incidence rates (IR) were calculated by dividing the number of events by person time at risk. To compare patients with and without ARF, t test or chi-square test were used.


Patient's mean age was 40 years; 68% were male and 61% were black. One hundred-eleven ARF events occurred in 71 subjects (IR 5.9 per 100 person-years; 95% CI 4.9, 7.1). ARF was more common in men, in those with CD4 cell count <200 cells/mm(3), and HIV RNA levels >10,000 copies/mL. These patients more often had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C infection (HCV), and have received HAART. ARF was mainly community-acquired, due to prerenal causes or acute tubular necrosis, and associated with opportunistic infections and drugs. Liver disease was a cause of ARF in HCV-infected patients.


ARF is common in ambulatory HIV patients. Immunosuppression, infection, and HCV are important conditions associated with ARF in the post-HAART era.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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